Kalimat aktif (active voice) adalah kalimat dimana subject-nya melakukan pekerjaan, sebaliknya, kalimat pasif (passive voice) adalah kalimat dimana subject-nya dikenai pekerjaan oleh object kalimat. Active voice lebih sering digunakan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari dibandingkan dengan passive voice. Namun demikian, sering kita temukan passive voice di surat-surat kabar, artikel-artikel di majalah-majalah dan tulisan-tulisan ilmiah. Passive voice digunakan karena object dari active voice merupakan informasi yang lebih penting dibandingkan dengan subject-nya.

Contoh :

  • Active : We fertilize the soil every 6 months
  • Passive: The soil is fertilized by us every 6 months

Dari contoh ini dapat kita lihat bahwa:

  1. Object dari active voice (the soil) menjadi subject dari passive voice
  2. Subject dari active voice (we) menjadi object dari passive voice. Perhatikan pula bahwa terjadi perubahan dari subject pronoun ‘we’ menjadi object pronoun ‘us’.
  3. Verb1 (fertilize) pada active voice menjadi verb3 (fertilized) pada passive voice.
  4. Ditambahkannya be ‘is’ di depan verb3. Be yang digunakan adalah tergantung pada subject passive voice dan tenses yang digunakan. (Perhatikan pola-pola passive voice di bawah).
  5. Ditambahkannya kata ‘by’ di belakang verb3. Namun, jika object dari passive voice dianggap tidak penting atau tidak diketahui, maka object biasanya tidak dikemukakan dan begitu pula kata ‘by’.
  6. Khusus untuk kalimat-kalimat progressive (present, past, past perfect, future, past future, dan past future perfect continuous, perlu menambahkan ‘being’ di depan verb3). Kalau tidak ditambahkan “being”, tensisnya akan berubah, bukan progressive/continuous lagi. Perhatikan contoh-contoh pada poin h – o di bawah.

Berdasarkan keenam poin di atas maka passive voice mengikuti pola sebagai berikut:

Subject + be + Verb+ by + Object + modifier

Pola active dan passive voice pada tiap tensis

 

a. Jika active voice dalam simple present tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah is, am atau are.

Contoh:

  • Active    : He meets them everyday.
  • Passive  : They are met by him everyday.
  • Active    : She waters this plant every two days.
  • Passive  : This plant is watered by her every two days.

b. Jika active voice dalam simple past tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah was atau were

Contoh:

  • Active    : He met them yesterday
  • Passive  : They were met by him yesterday
  • Active    : She watered this plant this morning
  • Passive  : This plant was watered by her this morning

c. Jika active voice dalam present perfect tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah been yang diletakkan setelah auxiliary has atau have, sehingga menjadi ‘has been’ atau ‘have been’

Contoh:

  • Active    : He has met them
  • Passive  : They have been met by him
  • Active    : She has watered this plant for 5 minutes.
  • Passive  : This plant has been watered by her for 5 minutes.

 

d. Jika active voice dalam past perfect tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah been yang diletakkan setelah auxiliary had, sehingga menjadi had been

Contoh:

  • Active    : He had met them before I came.
  • Passive  : They had been met by him before I came.
  • Active    : She had watered this plant for 5 minutes when I got here
  • Passive  : This plant had been watered by her for 5 minutes when I got here

e. Jika active voice dalam simple future tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah be

Contoh:

  • Active    : He will meet them tomorrow.
  • Passive  : They will be met by him tomorrow.
  • Active    : She will water this plant this afternoon.
  • Passive  : This plant will be watered by her this afternoon.
  • Active    : The farmers are going to harvest the crops next week
  • Passive  : The crops are going to be harvested by the farmers next week.

f. Jika active voice dalam future perfect tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah been yang diletakkan setelah auxiliary will have, sehingga menjadi ‘will have been’

Contoh:

  • Active    : He will have met them before I get there tomorrow.
  • Passive  : They will have been met by him before I get there tomorrow.
  • Active   : She will have watered this plant before I get here this afternoon.
  • Passive  : This plant will have been watered by her before I get here this afternoon.

g. Jika active voice dalam past future perfect tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah been yang diletakkan setelah auxiliary would have, sehingga menjadi ‘would have been’.

Contoh:

  • Active    : He would have met them.
  • Passive  : They would have been met by him.
  • Active    : She would have watered this plant.
  • Passive  : This plant would have been watered by her.

h. Jika active voice dalam present continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah (is, am atauare) + being.

Contoh:

  • Active    : He is meeting them now.
  • Passive  : They are being met by him now.
  • Active    : She is watering this plant now.
  • Passive  : This plant is being watered by her now.

 

i. Jika active voice dalam past continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah (was atau were) + being.

Contoh:

  • Active    : He was meeting them.
  • Passive  : They were being met by him.
  • Active    : She was watering this plant.
  • Passive  : This plant was being watered by her.

j. Jika active voice dalam perfect continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah (has/have) been + being.

Contoh:

  • Active    : He has been meeting them.
  • Passive  : They have been being met by him.
  • Active    : She has been watering this plant.
  • Passive  : This plant has been being watered by her.

k. Jika active voice dalam past perfect continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah had been + being.

Contoh:

  • Active    : He had been meeting them.
  • Passive  : They had been being met by him.
  • Active    : She had been watering this plant.
  • Passive  : This plant had been being watered by her.

l. Jika active voice dalam future continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah will be + being.

Contoh:

  • Active    : He will be meeting them.
  • Passive  : They will be being met by him.
  • Active    : She will be watering this plant.
  • Passive  : This plant will be being watered by her.

m. Jika active voice dalam past future continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah would be + being.

Contoh:

  • Active    : He would be meeting them.
  • Passive  : They would be being met by him.
  • Active    : She would be watering this plant.
  • Passive   : This plant would be being watered by her.

n. Jika active voice dalam future perfect continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah will have been + being.

Contoh:

  • Active    : He will have been meeting them.
  • Passive  : They will have been being met by him.
  • Active    : She will have been watering this plant.
  • Passive  : This plant will have been being watered by her.

o. Jika active voice dalam past future perfect continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalahwould have been + being.

Contoh:

  • Active    : He would be meeting them.
  • Passive  : They would be being met by him.
  • Active    : She would be watering this plant.
  • Passive  : This plant would be being watered by her.

Contoh-contoh yang lain:

  1. Koko’s nose is bleeding. He was punched by his friend right on his nose. (Hidung Koko sedang berdarah. Dia dipukul oleh temannya tepat di hidungnya).
  2. The Indonesian football team was beaten by the Saudi Arabian team. (Team sepakbola Indonesia dikalahkan oleh team arab Saudi).
  3. These plants were watered by my sister a few minutes ago. (Tanaman-tanaman ini disirami oleh adikku beberapa menit yang lalu).
  4. There is no meal left. All has been devoured by Yeyes. (Tidak ada makan yang tersisa. Semuanya telah dilahap habis oleh Yeyes).
  5. English is studied by all high school students. (Bahasa Inggris dipelajari oleh semua murid sekolah menengah lanjutan (SMP dan SMA).

That’s all. Untuk mengetahui pemahaman anda dalam kalimat aktif dan kalimat pasif, silakan kerjakan soal dibawah, anda diberikan 10 soal. Pada tiap soal, anda diberikan kalimat aktif atau kalimat pasif. Jika kalimat yang diberikan itu adalah kalimat aktif, pilihlah bentuk kalimat pasifnya yang paling tepat. Sebaliknya, jika kalimat yang diberikan adalah kalimat pasif, pilihlah bentuk kalimat aktifnya yang paling tepat.

 

1.   SBY and Budiono won the general election.

-SBY and Budiono are won by the general election.
-The general election is won by SBY and Budiono.
-The general election was won by SBY and Budiono.
-The general election were won by SBY and Budiono.

2.   Robby will buy John a new cloth.

-John will be bought by Robby a new cloth.
-John would be bought a new cloth by Robby.
-A new cloth will be bought by Robby for John.
-A new cloth will be bought by John for Robby.

3.   Some students are going to arrange a reunion party at school next month.

-A reunion party are going to arrange by some students at school next month.
-A reunion party is going to arrange by some students at school next month.
-A reunion party is going to arrange by some students at school next month.
-A reunion party is going to be arranged by some students at school next month.

4.   Neither James nor Jenny has been told yet.

-James has told Jenny already.
-Jenny has told James already.
-Nobody has told James and Jenny.
-They have told either James or Jenny.

5.   My book was stolen.

-Someone stole my book.
-Someone has stolen my book
-Someone have stolen my book.
-Someone was stealing my book

6.   My father enlarged and repainted the house.

-The house is enlarged by my father and repainted.
-The house was enlarged and repainted by my father.
-The house was being enlarged and repainted by my father.
-The house was to enlarge and repaint by my father. 

7.   My friend is reading a book in the classroom.

-A book is read by my friend in the classroom.
-A book is readed by my friend in the classroom.
-A book is be reading by my friend in the classroom.
-A book is being read by my friend in the classroom.

8.   Cristiano Ronaldo scored the winning goal.

-The goal is won by Cristiano Ronaldo scored
-The goal is scored by Cristiano Ronaldo.
-The winning goal is scored by Cristiano Ronaldo.
-The winning goal was scored by Cristiano Ronaldo.

9.   After class, one of the students always erases the whiteboard.

-After class, the whiteboard is always erased by one of the students.
-After class, the whiteboard are always erased by one of the students.
-After class, the whiteboard is always being erased by one of the students.
-After class, the whiteboard always is erased by one of the students.

10.   I am happy now.

-Happy is now by me.
-Happiness is by me now.
-The happiness is now by me.
-None of the above options are correct.

– Kunci Jawaban :
1.   SBY and Budiono won the general election.
  • SBY and Budiono are won by the general election.
  • The general election is won by SBY and Budiono.
  • The general election was won by SBY and Budiono.
  • The general election were won by SBY and Budiono.

Kalimat aktif ini menggunakan simple past tense, so kalimat pasifnya juga harus dalam simple past tense. Object dari kalimat aktif ini adalah “The general election”, sehingga menjadi subject dari kalimat pasif Karena “The general election” adalah singular subject (dapat digantikan dengan pronoun it), maka dalam simple past tense, to be yang tepat mengikutinya adalah “was”. Bentuk (verb2) dan verb3 untuk kata kerja “win” adalah sama, yaitu won. Oleh karena itu, opsi 3 yang benar. Opsi 1 dan 2 salah karena digunakannya to be “are” dan “is” (to be untuk present tense). Opsi 4 salah karena digunakannya to be “were” (Note: “were” tidak pernah digunakan untuk mengikuti singular subject, kecuali dalam kalimat pengandaian.

2.   Robby will buy John a new cloth.
  • John will be bought by Robby a new cloth.
  • John would be bought a new cloth by Robby.
  • A new cloth will be bought by Robby for John.
  • A new cloth will be bought by John for Robby.

Jika kalimat aktif mengandung indirect object (pelengkap langsung) dan direct object (pelengkap tidak langsung), maka yang digunakan sebagai subject dari kalimat pasifnya adalah direct object. Direct object dari kalimat aktif ini adalah “a new cloth”, and that’s why digunakan sebagai subject dari kalimat pasifnya. Kalimat aktif ini menggunakan simple future tense (menggunakan verb prhase: will verb1). Dalam kalimat pasif, verb phrase ini hanya berubah sedikit menjadi will be verb3. Oleh karena itu, bentuk kalimat pasif yang benar adalah opsi 3. Dan, karena kita menempatkan indirect object setelah direct object, kita membutuhkan preposition dan dalam kalimat ini preposition yang tepat digunakan adalah for. Ketiga opsi lainnya salah karena tidak sesuai dengan yang telah dipaparkan tadi. Kesalahannya juga akan tampak jelas jika kita terjemahkan tiap opsi satu per satu: Kalimat aktif: Robby akan membelikan John sebuah baju baru. Atau: Robby akan membeli sebuah baju baru untuk John. Kalimat pasif: 1. John akan dibeli oleh Robby sebuah baju baru. 2. John akan dibeli sebuah baju baru oleh Robby. (maknanya sama dengan opsi 1, hanya letak objectnya diputar). 3. Sebuah baju baru akan dibeli oleh Robby untuk John. 4. Sebuah baju baru akan dibeli oleh John untuk Robby.

3.   Some students are going to arrange a reunion party at school next month.
  • A reunion party are going to arrange by some students at school next month.
  • A reunion party is going to arrange by some students at school next month.
  • A reunion party is going to arrange by some students at school next month.
  • A reunion party is going to be arranged by some students at school next month.

Kalimat ini juga menggunakan simple future tense, tetapi menggunakan pola “to be going to”, dan pola kalimat pasifnya adalah: S + to be going to + be verb3 by object… A reunion party adalah singular subject, so to be yang tepat mengikutinya adalah “is”. Bentuk verb3 untuk verb “arrange” adalah “arranged”, and that’s why opsi 4 yang benar.

4.   Neither James nor Jenny has been told yet.
  • James has told Jenny already.
  • Jenny has told James already.
  • Nobody has told James and Jenny.
  • They have told either James or Jenny.

Keempat opsi telah menggunakan pola bahasa Inggris yang benar. Untuk mencari tahu mana yang benar, kita harus paham makna dari masing-masing kalimat. Kalimat pasif : Baik James maupun Jenny belum diberitahu. Kalimat aktif: 1. James telah memberitahu Jenny. 2. Jenny telah memberitahu James. 3. Belum ada orang yang telah memberitahu James dan Jenny. 4. Mereka telah memberitahu baik James maupun Jenny.

5.   My book was stolen.
  • Someone stole my book.
  • Someone has stolen my book
  • Someone have stolen my book.
  • Someone was stealing my book

Question was not answered

Kalimat pasif ini menggunakan simple past tense, so pola untuk kalimat aktifnya adalah: S + verb2 + O. Opsi 2 dan 3 salah karena menggunakan present perfect tense (dan karena digunakannya “have” pada opsi 3), sedangkan opsi 4 salah karena menggunakan past continuous tense.

6.   My father enlarged and repainted the house.
  • The house is enlarged by my father and repainted.
  • The house was enlarged and repainted by my father.
  • The house was being enlarged and repainted by my father.
  • The house was to enlarge and repaint by my father.

Kalimat aktif ini menggunakan simple past tense, kebalikan dari soal no. 5.

7.   My friend is reading a book in the classroom.
  • A book is read by my friend in the classroom.
  • A book is readed by my friend in the classroom.
  • A book is be reading by my friend in the classroom.
  • A book is being read by my friend in the classroom.

Kalimat ini menggunakan present continuous tense, dan pola kalimat pasifnya adalah S + is/am/are + being + verb3 + by + O. Opsi 1 salah karena menggunakan simple present tense (makna continuous atau makna SEDANG menjadi hilang). Opsi 2 sama dengan opsi 1, plus digunakannya kata readed (tidak ada dalam kosa kata bahasa Inggris), dan opsi 3 salah karena “is be verb-ing” (pola ini tidak ada dalam bahasa Inggris).

8.   Cristiano Ronaldo scored the winning goal.
  • The goal is won by Cristiano Ronaldo scored
  • The goal is scored by Cristiano Ronaldo.
  • The winning goal is scored by Cristiano Ronaldo.
  • The winning goal was scored by Cristiano Ronaldo.

Kalimat aktif ini menggunakan simple past tense, so pola kalimat pasifnya adalah S + was/were + verb3 + by + O.

9.   After class, one of the students always erases the whiteboard.
  • After class, the whiteboard is always erased by one of the students.
  • After class, the whiteboard are always erased by one of the students.
  • After class, the whiteboard is always being erased by one of the students.
  • After class, the whiteboard always is erased by one of the students.

Kalimat aktif ini menggunakan simple present tense, so pola kalimat pasifnya adalah S + is/am/are + verb3 + by + O. Karena subject kalimat pasifnya adalah the whiteboard (singular subject) maka tobe yang tepat mengikutinya adalah is. Dan khusus untuk opsi 4, salah karena adverb of frequency “always” ditempatkan sebelum to be.

10.   I am happy now.
  • Happy is now by me.
  • Happiness is by me now.
  • The happiness is now by me.
  • None of the above options are correct.

Tidak ada bentuk pasif jika kalimatnya tidak menggunakan kata kerja.